Data communication is essential to our ever-growing digital world. Understanding how different methods for data transmission function is essential to creating reliable and efficient networks. Different methods determine the way data is transmitted.

Hardware in a communications circuit will use different techniques to efficiently transfer data. This includes desmultiplexing and multiplexing. These are processes that combine or separate signals and then send them as a single multi-channel signal. This maximizes bandwidth utilization and reduces costs. Error-detection code and signal amplifiers reduce the possibility of data corruption caused by electromagnetic disturbances or other noise that could alter bits of data when they travel through the communication channel.

Data communications also contain the following set (protocol) of rules which are followed by the computers of the sender as well as the receiver. These rules ensure that the message will be received and understood.

The sender can be a computer or another device that creates the message and then transmits it. It can be in the form of text, numbers, pictures, sounds or videos. The receiver is the device or computer that receives the message, which could be the same as the sender or different. The transmission medium is a physical path that connects the sender and the receiver. It can be wired, for instance, twisted-pair wire or fiber optic cable, or wireless such as radio waves or lasers.

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